[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 19, Issue 1 (4-2016) ::
IJAL 2016, 19(1): 141-180 Back to browse issues page
L2 Learners’ Enhanced Pragmatic Comprehension of Implicatures via Computer-Mediated Communication and Social Media Networks
Abstract:   (3459 Views)

Second or foreign language (L2) learners’ development of interlanguage pragmatic (ILP) competence to understand and properly interpret utterances under certain social and cultural circumstances plays a pivotal role in the achievement of communicative competence. The current study was designed to explore the effects of synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) and asynchronous computer-mediated communication (ACMC) course modules delivered through social media networks (SMN) on the development of the Iranian L2 learners’ comprehension of implicatures. The participants of the study were 90 English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) undergraduate students attending three intact classes. The classes were randomly assigned to one control and two experimental (SCMC and ACMC) groups. An open-ended implicature comprehension test was used to assess students’ ILP development in this pretest-posttest comparison-group study. The control group received the traditional teacher-fronted instruction, and the S/ACMC groups received instruction via synchronous and asynchronous modules of SMNs for 4 months, respectively. Students’ attitudes towards the CMC-based courses were also sought. Split-plot ANOVA results indicated that both experimental groups developed significant ILP ability to comprehend and interpret L2 implicatures after the instruction; however, by comparison, the ACMC group improved more considerably. It is concluded that, first, comprehending L2 implicatures is not impervious to computer-mediated instruction and, second, different CMC affordances may result in differential ILP developmental effects in teaching L2 pragmatics. The findings can help L2 teachers decide how to use CMC affordances and SMN modules to raise L2 learners’ pragmatic awareness

Keywords: Keywords: Implicatures, Computer-mediated communication, Social media networks, Synchronous CMC, Asynchronous CMC modules
Full-Text [PDF 872 kb]   (2322 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2015/07/11 | Accepted: 2016/01/11 | Published: 2016/10/18
1. Absalom, M., & Rizzi, A. (2008). Comparing the outcomes of online listening versus online text-based tasks in university level Italian L2 study. ReCALL, 20(1), 55-66.
2. Anderson, T. (2004). Towards a theory of online learning. In T. Anderson, & F. Elloumni (Eds.), Theory and Practice of Online Learning (pp. 33-60), Athabasca: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved October 1, 2013, from http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/
3. Arnold, N. (2007). Reducing foreign language communication apprehension with computer-mediated communication: A preliminary study. System, 35(4), 469-486.
4. Bachman, L. F. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
5. Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing I practice: Designing and developing useful language tests. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
6. Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2001). Evaluating the empirical evidence. Grounds for instruction in pragmatics? In K. R. Rose, & G. Kasper (Eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching (pp. 13-32). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
7. Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2013). Developing L2 pragmatics. Language Learning, 63(1), 68-86.
8. Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violation? Pragmatic Vs. grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 233-259.
9. Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Hartford, B. S. (1991). Saying "No": Native and nonnative rejections in English. In L. Bouton, & Y. Kachru (Eds.), Pragmatics and Language Learning, (pp. 41-57). Urbana-Champaign, IL: DEIL.
10. Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Hartford, B. S. (Eds.) (2005). Interlanguage pragmatics: Exploring institutional talk. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
11. Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Vellenga, H. E. (2012). The effect of instruction on conventional expressions in L2 pragmatics. System, 40, 77-89.
12. Baron, N. S. (2000). Alphabet to email: How written English evolved and where it’s heading. London: Routledge.
13. Barsky, E. & Purdon, M. (2006). Introducing Web 2.0: Social networking and social bookmarking for health librarians. Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association, 27, 65-67.
14. Belz, J. A. (2007). The role of computer mediation in the instruction and development of L2 pragmatic competence. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 27, 45-75.
15. Blake, R. (2000). Computer-mediated communication: A window on L2 Spanish interlanguage. Language Learning & Technology, 4(1), 120-136.
16. Bouton, L. F. (1988). A cross-cultural study of ability to interpret implicatures in English. World Englishes, 7(2), 183-196.
17. Bouton, L. F. (1992). The interpretation of implicature in English by NNS: Does it come automatically-without being explicitly taught? Pragmatics and Language Learning, 3, 53-65.
18. Bouton, L. F. (1994). Conversational implicature in a second language: learned slowly when not deliberately taught. Journal of Pragmatics, 22(2), 157-167.
19. Bouton, L. F. (1999). Developing non-native speaker skills in interpreting conversational implicatures in English: Explicit teaching can ease the process. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Culture in Second Language Teaching and Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
20. Braun, S. (2005). From pedagogically relevant corpora to authentic language learning contexts. ReCALL, 17(1), 47-64.
21. Broersma, D. (1994). Do chicken have lips? Conversational implicature in ESL classroom. Retrieved January 2, 2014,http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED377707&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED377707.
22. Cohen, A. D., & Ishihara, N. (2005). A web-based approach to strategic learning of speech acts. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://www.carla.umn.edu/speechacts/Japanese%20Speech%20Act%20Report%20Rev.%20June05.pdf
23. Crystal, D. (2008). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. (6th Edition). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
24. Day, D., & Lloyd, M. (2007). Affordances of online technologies: More than the properties of the technology. Australian Educational Computing 22(2), 17-21. Retrieved April 12, 2013 from http://acce.edu.au/sites/acce.edu.au/files/pj/journal/AEC%20Vol%2022%20No%202%202007%20Affordances%20of%20online%20technologies-More.pdf
25. Eisenchlas, S. A. (2011). On-line interactions as a resource to raise pragmatic awareness. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(1), 51-61.
26. Eslami, Z. R. (2005). Raising the pragmatic awareness of language learners. ELT Journal, 59(3), 199-208.
27. Eslami, Z. R., & Liu, C. N. (2013). Learning pragmatics through computer-mediated communication in Taiwan. International Journal of Society, Culture, and Language, 1(1), 52-73.
28. Eslami, Z., & Mirzaei, A. (2012). Assessment of Second Language Pragmatics. In Coombe, C., O’Sullivan, B., Davidson, P., & Stoynoff, S. (Eds.) The Cambridge Guide to Second Language Assessment (pp. 198-208). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
29. Eslami, Z. R., Mirzaei, A., & Dini, S. (2015). The role of asynchronous computer mediated communication in the instruction and development of EFL learners' pragmatic competence. System, 48(1), 99-111.
30. Fernandez, B. M., & Fontecha, A. F. (2008). The teachability of pragmatics in SLA: Friends’ humor through Grice. Porta Linguarium, 10, 31-43.
31. Fulcher. G., & Davidson, F. (2007). Language testing and assessment: An advanced resource book. London: Routledge.
32. Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In P. Cole, & J. L. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and semantics: Speech acts (pp. 41-58). London: Academic Press.
33. Grice, H. P. (1981). Presupposition and Conversational Implicature. In P. Cole (Ed.), Radical Pragmatics (pp. 183–198). New York: Academic Press.
34. Grice, H. P. (1989). Studies in the way of words. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
35. Haythornthwaite, C., & Kazmer, M. M. (2002). Bringing the Internet home: Adult distance learners and their Internet, home, and work worlds. In B. Wellman, C. Haythornhtwaite (Eds.), Internet in everyday life (pp. 431-463). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
36. Jacobs, G. M., & Farrel, T. S. C. (2001). Paradigm shift: Understanding and implementing change in second language education. TESL-EJ, 5(1), 1-16.
37. Jeon, E. & Kaya, T. (2006). Effects of L2 instruction on interlanguage pragmatic development: A meta-analysis. In J. Norris, & L. Ortega (Eds), Synthesizing research on language learning and teaching (pp. 165–211). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
38. Kasper, G. (1997). Can pragmatic competence be taught? Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center. Retrieved July 14, 2013, from http://www.nflrc.hawaii.edu/networks/NW06
39. Kasper, G., & Blum-Kulka, S. (1993). Interlanguage pragmatics: An introduction. In G. Kasper, & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 3-18). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
40. Kasper, G., & Rose, K. R. (2002). Pragmatic development in a second language. Oxford: Blackwell.
41. Keenan, E. L. (1976). Remarkable subjects in Malagasy. In N. L. Charles (Ed.), Subject and Topic (pp. 247-301). New York: Academic Press.
42. Kinnear P. R., & Gray C. D. (1999). SPSS for Windows made simple. 3rd edition. Hove, UK: Psychology Press Ltd, Publishers.
43. Lee, S. J. (2002). Interpreting conversational implicatures: A study of Korean learners of English. The Korean TESOL Journal, 5, 1-26.
44. Leech, G. N. (1983). Principles of pragmatics. New York: Longman.
45. Liu, C. N. J. (2007). Pragmatics in foreign language instruction: The effects of pedagogical intervention and technology on the development of EFL learners’ realization of request. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, USA.
46. LoCastro, V. (2003). Learner subjectivity and pragmatic competence development. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of American Association for Applied Linguistics.
47. McNamara, T., Roever, C. (2006). Language testing: The social dimension. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
48. Mirzaei, A., & Esmaeili, M. (2013). The effects of planned instruction on Iranian learners’ interlanguage pragmatic development. Iranian Journal of Society, Culture, & Language (IJSCL), 1(1), 89-100.
49. Murry, J. C. (2011). Do bears fly? Revisiting conversational implicature in instructional pragmatics. TESL-EJ, 15(2). Retrieved January 25, 2013, from http://www.tesl-ej.org/wordpress/issues/volume15/ej58/ej58a4/
50. Polat, N., Mancilla, R., & Mahalingappa, L. (2013). Anonimity and motivation in asynchronous discussion and L2 vocabulary learning. Language learning & Technology, 17(2), 57-74.
51. O’Dowd, R. (2006). The use of videoconferencing and email as mediators of intercultural student ethnography. In J. A. Belz, & S. L. Thorne (Eds.), Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp. 86-120). Boston: Heinle and Heinle.
52. Roblyer, M. D., McDaniel, M., Webb, M., Herman, J., & Witty, J. V. (2010). Findings on Facebook in higher education: A comparison of college faculty and student uses and perceptions of social networking sites. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(3), 134-140.
53. Schauer, G. A. (2009). Interlanguage pragmatic development: The study abroad context. UK: Continuum International Publishing Group.
54. Taguchi, N. (2002b). An application of Relevance Theory to the analysis of L2 interpretation processes: The comprehension of indirect replies. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 40, 151-176.
55. Taguchi, N. (2005a). Comprehension of implied meaning in English as a second language. Modern Language Journal, 89, 543-562.
56. Taguchi, N. (2007c). Development of speed and accuracy in pragmatic comprehension in English as a foreign language. TESOL Quarterly, 42, 313-338.
57. Taguchi, N. (2011). Teaching pragmatics: Trends and issues. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 289-310.
Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

L2 Learners’ Enhanced Pragmatic Comprehension of Implicatures via Computer-Mediated Communication and Social Media Networks. IJAL. 2016; 19 (1) :141-180
URL: http://ijal.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2625-en.html

Volume 19, Issue 1 (4-2016) Back to browse issues page
Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.16 seconds with 32 queries by YEKTAWEB 3921