[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 20, Issue 2 (9-2017) ::
IJAL 2017, 20(2): 1-34 Back to browse issues page
The Relationship between High School Students' Social Capital and Their Foreign Language Achievement: A Gender and Regional Variations Perspective
Fatemeh Hemmati , Farnaz Farrokh Allaiee
Payame Noor University, Tehran
Abstract:   (590 Views)
This study aimed to compare the underlying measures of male and female high- school students’ social capital in terms of regional variations and gender and investigate the relationship between those measures and the students' foreign language (FL) achievement. To this end, a number of 904 third-grader high school students (278 male and 626 female) from two educational districts (privileged district (PD) and less-privileged district (LD)) participated in the study. They filled out the Student Social Capital Questionnaire and took an English language achievement test. The results showed that the students in the PD outperformed their counterparts in the LD. Furthermore, group statistics and t-test results suggested variations among the groups of students in terms of such factors as mothers’ involvement, institutional trust, intergenerational closure, and parents’ educational aspiration. Pearson product-moment correlation indicated that there was a significant negative correlation between male and female students' participation in social networks and religious activities on the one hand, and their foreign language achievement on the other hand. However, there was a significant positive correlation between intergenerational closure and parents’ educational aspiration and female students' English scores on the S-test. The findings have implications for families and school members to provide students with hopeful and positive aspirations and intimate family environments and learning environments, which can enhance their FL achievement.
Keywords: Social capital, Regional variation, Gender, Foreign language achievement
Full-Text [PDF 563 kb]   (390 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2017/03/8 | Accepted: 2017/07/20 | Published: 2017/07/28
References
1. Anderson, J.B. (2008). SC and student learning: Empirical results from Latino American primary schools. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 27, 439-449.
2. Assadi, S.M., Smetana, J., Shahmansouri, N., & Mohammadi, M. (2011). Beliefs about parental authority, parenting styles, and parentadolescent conflict among Iranian mothers of middle adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35 (5), 424-431. [DOI:10.1177/0165025411409121]
3. Bassani, C. (2006). A test of SC theory outside of the American context: Family and school SC and youths' math scores in Canada, Japan, and the United States. International Journal of Educational Research, 45(6), 380-403. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijer.2007.03.001]
4. Bernstein, B. (1996). Pedagogy, symbolic control, and identity: Theory, research, critique. London: Taylor and Francis.
5. Birjandi, P., Nouroozi, M., & Mahmoodi, G. (2010). English book 3. Tehran: Ketabhaie Darsie? Iran Publication.
6. Blaxter, M., Poland, F., Curren, M. (2001). Measuring SC: Qualitative study of how older people relate SC to health. Final report to the Health Development Agency. Retrieved March 17, 2018from beepdf.com/doc/16972/social_capital.html.
7. Bourdieu, P. (1977). The economics of linguistic exchanges. Social Science Information, 16, 645-668. [DOI:10.1177/053901847701600601]
8. Bourdieu, P. (1985). The social space and genesis of groups. Theory and Society, 14 (6), 723-744. [DOI:10.1007/BF00174048]
9. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J.G. Richardson (ed.): Handbook for theory and research for the sociology of education, (pp. 241-258).
10. Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching. USA.: Pearson Education.
11. Camro, R. M. D. (2009). Albernoa revisited: Tracking SC in a Portuguese village. European Society for Rural Sociology, 50(1), 15-31.
12. Carroll, A., Houghton, S., Wood, R., Unsworth, K., Hattie, J., Gordon, L., Bowe, J. (2009). Self-efficacy and academic achievement in Australian high school students: The mediating effects of academic aspirations and delinquency. Journal of Adolescence, 32 (4), 797-817. [DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.10.009]
13. Coleman, J., S. (1988). Social capital in creation of human capital. The American Journal of Sociology, 49, 95-120. [DOI:10.1086/228943]
14. Coleman, J. S. (1990). Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
15. Contreras, F. E. (2005). Access, achievement and SC: standardized exams and the Latino college-bound population. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 4 (3), 197-214. [DOI:10.1177/1538192705276546]
16. Crosnoe, R. (2004). Social capital and the interplay of families and schools. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(2), 267-280. [DOI:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2004.00019.x]
17. Dika, S.L., Singh, K. (2002). Applications of SC in educational literature. Review of Educational Research, 27 (1), 31-60. [DOI:10.3102/00346543072001031]
18. DiMaggio, P. (1982). Cultural capital and school success: The impact of status culture participation on the grades of U.S. high school students. American Sociological Review, 47, 189-201. [DOI:10.2307/2094962]
19. Dyk, P. H., & Wilson, S. M. (1999). Family-based social capital considerations as predictors of attainments among Appalachian youth. Sociological Inquiry, 62 (3), 477-503. [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-682X.1999.tb00882.x]
20. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Boden, J. M. (2008). The transmission of social inequality: examination of the linkages between family socioeconomic status in childhood and educational achievement in young adulthood. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 26, 277-295. [DOI:10.1016/j.rssm.2008.05.001]
21. Fin, L.S., & Ishak, Z. (2012). A prior model of students' academic achievement: the effect of gender as moderator. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 65, 1092-1100. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.02.122]
22. Fischer, C. (1982). To dwell among friends: personal networks in town and city. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
23. French, D. C., Eisenberg N., Purwono, U., & Suryanti, T. A. (2008). Religious involvement and the social competence and adjustments of Indonesian Muslim adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 44 (2), 597-611. [DOI:10.1037/0012-1649.44.2.597]
24. Garmon, A., & Lopez-Truly, R. N. (2005). Testing a casual effects of SC: design for a cluster-randomized field trial. Thesis. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved December 21, 2010, from University of Wisconsin-Madison.
25. Hemmati, F., & Sharifi, M. (2018). Bivariate comparison of gender and English language learning: a meta- analysis of empirical studies. Biquarterly Journal of Cognitive Strategies in Learning, 5 (9), 61-81.
26. Herbst, M., & Rivkin, S. (2013). Divergent historical experiences and inequality in academic achievement: the case of Poland. The Journal of Socio Economics, 42, 1-12. [DOI:10.1016/j.socec.2012.11.008]
27. Hinnerich, B. T., Hoglin, E., & Johannesson, M. (2011). Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools? Economics of Education Review, 30 (4), 682-690. [DOI:10.1016/j.econedurev.2011.02.007]
28. Hopcroft, R.L. (2005). Parental status and differential investment in sons and daughters: Trivers Willard revisited. Social Forces, 83(3), 1111-1136. [DOI:10.1353/sof.2005.0035]
29. Ingen, E. V., & Eijck, K. V. (2009).Leisure and social capital; An analysis of types of company and activities. Leisure Sciences An Interdiciplinary Journal, 31 (2), 192-206. [DOI:10.1080/01490400802686078]
30. Jacob, E., Rottenberg, L., Patrick, S., & Wheeler, E. (1996). Cooperative learning: context and opportunities for acquiring academic English.TESOL Quarterly, 30 (2), 253-280. [DOI:10.2307/3588143]
31. Jager, M. M., & Holm, A. (2007). Does parents' economic, cultural, and SC explain the social class effect on educational attainment in theScandinavian mobility- regime? Social Science Research, 36, 719-744. [DOI:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.11.003]
32. Jha, A., Boudreaux, Ch. J., Banerjee, V. (2018). Political leanings and SC. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 72, 95-105. [DOI:10.1016/j.socec.2017.11.008]
33. Kaushanskaya, M., Gross, M., & Buac, M. (2013). Gender differences in child word learning. Learning and Individual Differences (27), 82-89. [DOI:10.1016/j.lindif.2013.07.002]
34. Kaushanskaya, M., Marian, V., & Yoo, J. (2011). Gender differences in adult word learning. ActaPsychologica, 137 (1), 24-35. [DOI:10.1016/j.actpsy.2011.02.002]
35. Khodadady, E. (2009). Objective-based achievement testing in the context of schema theory. Iranian Journal Language Studies (IJLS), 3 (1),1-30.
36. Khodadady, E., & FarrokhAlaee, F. (2012). Designing and validating a SC questionnaire. European Journal of Educational Studies, 4 (1), 107-123.
37. Khodadady, E., & Mokhtary, M. (2013). Cultural capital and English language achievement at grade three in Iranian high schools. Journal of Language Teaching and Research,4 (4), 715-723. [DOI:10.4304/jltr.4.4.715-723]
38. Khodadady, E., Pishghadam, R., & Farrokh Alaee, F. (2012). Exploring the relationship between SCs and English language achievement within a specific grade and context. English Language Teaching, 5(5), 45-55. [DOI:10.5539/elt.v5n5p45]
39. Kim, D. H., & Schneider, B. (2005). SC in action: Alignment of parental support in adolescents' transition to postsecondary education. Social Forces, 84, 1181-1206. [DOI:10.1353/sof.2006.0012]
40. Krauss, S. E., Hamzah, A., Ismail, I. A., Suandi, T., Hamzah, S. R., Dahalan, D., & Idris, F. (2012).Parenting, community, and religious predictors of positive and negative developmental outcomes among Muslim adolescents. Youth & Society, 46 (2), 201-227. [DOI:10.1177/0044118X12464062]
41. Li, G. (2007). Home environment and second‐language acquisition: the importance of family capital. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 28(3), 285-299. [DOI:10.1080/01425690701252028]
42. McPherson, J., M., & Smith-Lovin, L. (1982). Women and weak ties: differences by sex in the size of voluntary organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 87, 883-904. [DOI:10.1086/227525]
43. Maness, M. (2017). Comparison of SC indicators from position generators and name generators in predicting activity selection. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 106, 374-395. [DOI:10.1016/j.tra.2017.10.008]
44. Marsden, P., V. (1987). "Core discussion networks of Americans." American Sociological Review, 52, 122-131. [DOI:10.2307/2095397]
45. Misra, K., Grimes, P. W., & Rogers, K. E. (2013). The effect of community SC on school performance: a spatial approach. The Journal of Socioeconomics, 42, 106-111. [DOI:10.1016/j.socec.2012.11.011]
46. Moore, G. (1990). Structural determinants of men's and women's personal networks. American Sociological Review, 55 (5), 726-735. [DOI:10.2307/2095868]
47. Nerri, F., & Ville, S. (2008). SC renewal and academic performance of international students in Australia. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37, 1515-1538. [DOI:10.1016/j.socec.2007.03.010]
48. Norris, P., & Inglehart, R. (2003).Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change Worldwide. London: Cambridge University Press.
49. Oorschot, W.V., Arts, W., & Gelissen, J. (2006). SC in Europe: measurement and social and regional distribution of a multifaceted phenomenon. ActaSociologica, 42 (2), 149-167.
50. Otter, C.V., & Stenberg, S.A. (2015). SC, human capital and parent–child relation quality: interacting for children's educational achievement? British Journal of Sociology of Education, 36 (7), 996-1016. [DOI:10.1080/01425692.2014.883275]
51. ajoluk, N. D. (2013). Sibling Relationship Predictors of Academic Achievement in Adolescents. PhD Thesis. University of California, Retrieved April 15, 2015, from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8db6b27b.
52. Parcel, T.L., & Dufur, M.(2009). Family and school capital explaining regional variation in math and reading achievement. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 27, 157-176. [DOI:10.1016/j.rssm.2009.04.003]
53. avlenko, A. (2002). Poststructuralist approaches to the study of social factors in L2. In: V. Cook (Ed.), Portraits of the L2 User. (pp. 277- 302). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. [DOI:10.21832/9781853595851]
54. Pishghadam, R., Noghani, M., & Zabihi, R. (2011). An application of a questionnaire of social and cultural capital to English language learning. English Language Teaching, 4 (3), 151-157. [DOI:10.5539/elt.v4n3p151]
55. Prado, J. M. (2009). Comparing educational trajectories of two Chinese students and one Latina student, a social capital approach. The High School Journal, 92, 14-27. [DOI:10.1353/hsj.0.0015]
56. Rosenbaum, E., & Rochford, J.A. (2008). Generational patterns in academic performance: the variable effects of attitudes and SC. Social Science Research, 37, 350-372. [DOI:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2007.03.003]
57. Schoon, I., & Polek, E. (2011). Teenage career aspirations and adult career attainment: the role of gender, social background and general cognitive ability. International Journal of Behavioral Development,53 (3), 210-217 [DOI:10.1177/0165025411398183]
58. Schlee, B. M., Mullis, A.K., &Shriner, M. (2009). Parents social and resource capital: Predictors of academic achievement during early childhood. Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 227-234. [DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2008.07.014]
59. Scott, J. (2006). Sociology: the key concepts. New York: Rutledge.
60. Seta, L., Pipitone, V., Gentile, M., & Allegra, M. (2014). A model to explain Italian regional differences in PISA 2009 outcomes. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 143, 185-189. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.384]
61. Smala, S., Paz, J. B., & Lingard, B. (2013). Languages, cultural capital and school choice: distinction and second-language immersion programs. British Journal of Sociology of Education,34 (3), 373-391. [DOI:10.1080/01425692.2012.722278]
62. Smith, S. S. (2000). Mobilizing social resources: Race, ethnic, and gender differences in SC and persisting wage inequalities. The Sociological Quarterly, 41 (4), 509-537. [DOI:10.1111/j.1533-8525.2000.tb00071.x]
63. Smith, M. H., Beaulieu, L. J., & Israel, G. D. (1992).Effect of human capital and SC on dropping out of high school in the south. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 8(1), 75-87.
64. Sol, J., Beers, P. J., &Wals, A. E. J. (2013).Social learning in regional innovation networks: trust, commitment and reframing as emergent properties of interaction. Journal of Cleaner Production, 49, 35-43. [DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.07.041]
65. Solak, E., & Cakir, R. (2015). Language learning strategies of language elearners in Turkey. E-Learning and Digital Media,12, 1.107-120. [DOI:10.1177/2042753014558384]
66. Song, L. (2011). Social capital and psychological distress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52 (4), 335-352. [DOI:10.1177/0022146511411921]
67. Sosu, E. M. (2014). Predicting maternal aspirations for their children's education: The role of parental and child characteristics. International Journal of Educational Research, 67, 67-79. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijer.2014.05.003]
68. Stoet, G., & Geary, D. C. (2011). Sex differences in mathematics and reading achievement are inversely related: Within- and acrossnation assessment of 10 years of PISA data. Review of General Psychology, 16 (1), 93-102. [DOI:10.1037/a0026617]
69. Stone, W. (2001). Measuring SC towards a theoretically informed measurement framework for researching SC in family and community life (Research Paper No.24). Retrieved December 20, 2013, from Australian Institute of Family Studies: www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/RP24.pdf
70. Sun, Y. (1999). The contextual effects of community social capital on academic performance. Social Science Research 28, 403-426. [DOI:10.1006/ssre.1999.0661]
71. Teachman, J., Paasch, K., & Carver, K. (1996). Social capital and dropping out of school early. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 773-783. [DOI:10.2307/353735]
72. Tramonte, L., & Willms, J. D. (2010). Cultural capital and its effects on education outcomes. Economics of Education Review, 29, 200-213. [DOI:10.1016/j.econedurev.2009.06.003]
73. Voyer, S., & Voyer, D. (2014). Gender differences in scholastic achievement: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140 (4),1174-1204. [DOI:10.1037/a0036620]
74. Vryonides, M., & Gouvias, D.(2012). Parents' aspirations for their children's educational and occupational prospects in Greece: The role of social class. International Journal of Educational Research, 53, 319-329. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijer.2012.04.005]
75. Walkey, F. H., McClure, J., Meyer, L. H.,& Weir, K. F. (2013). Low expectations equal no expectations: Aspirations, motivation, and achievement in secondary school. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38 (4), 306-315 [DOI:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2013.06.004]
76. Wells, R. (2008). The effects of SC and cultural capital on student persistence. Community College Review, 25-46. [DOI:10.1177/0091552108319604]
77. Yildizer, G., Bilgin, E., Korur, E. N., Novak, D., & Demirhan, G. (2018). The association of various SC indicators and physical activity participation among Turkish adolescents. Journal of Sports and Health Science, 7 (1), 27-33. [DOI:10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.008]
Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA code


XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hemmati F, Farrokh Allaiee F. The Relationship between High School Students' Social Capital and Their Foreign Language Achievement: A Gender and Regional Variations Perspective . IJAL. 2017; 20 (2) :1-34
URL: http://ijal.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2822-en.html


Volume 20, Issue 2 (9-2017) Back to browse issues page
Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.2 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 3781