[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 19, Issue 1 (4-2016) ::
IJAL 2016, 19(1): 73-98 Back to browse issues page
Promoting Metacognition in EFL Classrooms through Scaffolding Motivation
Abstract:   (1761 Views)

Planning, monitoring, and evaluating one’s performance constitute individuals’ metacognitive strategies. Recently, metacognition has been conceptualized not only at the individual level but also at pair and group levels. The concept of socially-shared metacognition has arisen based on the idea that group members observe, control, evaluate, and regulate each other’s actions to promote the group’s problem-solving. This article investigated the impact of motivational scaffolds on a group of Iranian EFL learners’ individual and socially-shared metacognition. Two groups of 30 female intermediate learners participated in this study.  In the experimental group, the participants received the teacher’s motivational scaffolds as she provided instructions and feedback throughout individual and collaborative oral and written tasks. On the other hand, the participants in the control group were asked to take part in the routine oral and written classroom activities. The participants’ think-aloud protocols in individual and pair activities were analyzed, and instances of metacognitive activities were identified. The data were analyzed through two Mann-Whitney U tests, and the results indicated that motivational scaffolds statistically significantly enhanced the use of metacognitive strategies at both inter and intra-individual levels. Implications for classrooms are discussed

Keywords: Keywords: Motivational scaffolds, Metacognition, Socially-shared metacognition
Full-Text [PDF 675 kb]   (1307 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2015/08/6 | Accepted: 2016/02/13 | Published: 2016/10/29
1. Alias, N. A. (2012). Design of a motivational scaffold for the Malaysian e-learning environment. Educational Technology and Society, 15(1), 137–151.
2. Angelova, M. (2001). Metacognitive knowledge in EFL writing. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 5(3), 78-83.
3. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.
4. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
5. Bannert, M., & Mengelkamp, C. (2013). Scaffolding Hypermedia Learning through Metacognitive Prompts. In R. Azevedo & V. Aleven. (Eds). International Handbook of Metacognition and Learning Technologies (pp. 171–186). Springer Science.
6. Belland, B., Kim, C., & Hannafin, M. (2013). A Framework for Designing Scaffolds That Improve Motivation and Cognition. Educational Psychologist, 48(4), 243–270.
7. Bereiter, C. & Scardamalia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence.
8. Boyer, K. E., Philips, R., Wallis, M., Vouk, M, & Lester, J. (2008). Balancing cognitive and motivational scaffolding in tutorial dialogue. In B. Woolf et al. (Eds.): Intelligent Tutoring System 2008, LNCS 5091, 239–249, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
9. Brophy, J. (1999). Toward a model of the value aspects of motivation in education: Developing appreciation for particular learning domains and activities. Educational Psychologist, 43, 75–86.
10. Brown, A. L. (1978). Knowing when, where, and how to remember: A problem of metacognition. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology, Vol. 1 (pp. 77–165). Hillsdale: Erlbaum. Erlbaum Associates.
11. Cera, R., Mancini, M., & Antonietti, A. (2013). Relationships between Metacognition, Self-efficacy and Self-regulation in Learning. Educational, Culture, and Psychological Studies, 7, 115–141.
12. Callender, A., Franco-Watkins, A., & Roberts, A. (2015). Improving metacognition in the classroom through instruction, training, and feedback. Metacognition and Learning.
13. Chen, C. (2014). An adaptive scaffolding e-learning system for middle school students’ physics learning. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 30 (3), 342–355.
14. Davis. A. J. (2013). Effective writing instruction: evidence-based classroom practices. South Yarra, Vic. Eleanor Curtain Publishing.
15. Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19(2), 109–134.
16. Dülger, O. (2011). Meta-cognitive strategies in developing EFL writing skills. Contemporary Online Language Education Journal, 1(2), 82–100.
17. Efklides, A. (2011). Interaction of metacognition with motivation and affect in self-regulated learning: The MASRL model. Educational Psychologist, 46(1), 6–25.
18. Elson, J. M. (2011). A process-genre approach to teaching argumentative writing to grade nine learners, (Unpublished master’s thesis), University of Rhodes, Grahamstown, South Africa.
19. Finn, B., & Metcalfe, J. (2008). Judgments of learning are influenced by memory for past test. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 19–34.
20. Fitzsimons, G. M., & Finkel, E. J. (2010). Interpersonal Influences on Self-Regulation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(2) 101–105.
21. Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring. American Psychologist, 34, 906–911.
22. Flavell, J. H. (1987). Speculations about the nature and development of metacognition. In F. E. Weinert & R. H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 21–29). Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
23. Fogarty, R. (1994). How to teach for metacognition. Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Publishing.
24. Hadwin, A. F., Oshige, M., Gress, C. L. Z., & Winne, P. H. (2010). Innovative ways for using gStudy to orchestrate and research social aspects of self-regulated learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(5), 794–805.
25. Hurme, T. R., Merenluoto, K., & Järvelä, S. (2009). Socially shared metacognition of pre-service primary teachers in a computer-supported mathematics course and their feelings of task difficulty: A case study. Educational Research and Evaluation, 15(5), 503–524.
26. Iiskala, T., Vauras, M., & Lehtinen, E. (2004). Socially-shared metacognition in peer learning? Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 1, 147–178.
27. Iiskala, T., Vauras, M., Lehtinen, E., & Salonen, P. (2011). Socially shared metacognition of dyads of pupils in collaborative mathematical problem-solving processes. Learning and Instruction, 21(3), 379–393.
28. Jafarigohar, M. & Mortazavi, M. (2016). The Impact of Scaffolding Mechanisms on EFL Learners’ Individual and Socially Shared Metacognition in Writing. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 1-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10573569.2016.1154488.
29. Jiang, Y., & Kleitman, S. (2015). Metacognition and motivation: Links between confidence, self-protection, and self-enhancement. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 222–230.
30. Larkin, Sh. (2009). Socially mediated metacognition and learning to write. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4, 149–159.
31. Miller, T., & Geraci, L. (2011). Training metacognition in the classroom: the influence of incentives and feedback on exam predictions. Metacognition and Learning, 6(3), 303-314.
32. Moores, T., Chang, J., & Smith, D. (2006). Clarifying the role of self-efficacy and metacognition as predictors of performance. ACM SIGMIS Database, 37(2–3), 125.
33. Nystrand, M. (1989). A social-interactive model of writing. Written Communication, 6(1), 66–85.
34. Panadero, E., & Järvelä, S. (2015). Socially shared regulation of learning: A review. European Psychologist, 20, 190–203..
35. Rahimi, M., & Abedi, S. (2014). The relationship between listening self efficacy and metacognitive awareness of listening strategies. Procedia-Social and Behavior Sciences, 98, 1454–1460.
36. Rebolledo-Mendez, G., du Boulay, B., & Luckin, R. (2006). Motivating the learner: an empirical evaluation. 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 545–554.
37. Reiser, B. (2004). Scaffolding complex learning: the mechanisms of structuring and problematizing student work. The Journal of the Learning Science, 13(3), 273–304.
38. Rodrigo, M.M.T., Rebolledo-Mendez, G., Baker, R.S.J.d., du Boulay, B., Sugay, J.O., Lim, S.A.L., Espejo-Lahoz, M.B., Luckin, R. (2008). The Effects of Motivational Modeling on Affect in an Intelligent Tutoring System. Proceedings of International Conference on Computers in Education, 57–64.
39. Salonen, P., Vauras, M., & Efklides, A. (2005). Social interaction: what can it tell us about metacognition and coregulation in learning? European Psychologist, 10, 199–208.
40. Schraw, G., Crippen, K. J., & Hartley, K. (2006). Promoting self-regulation in science education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36(1–2), 111–139.
41. Schraw, G. and Moshman, D. (1995). Metacognitive Theories. Educational Psychology Review, 7(4), 351–371.
42. Thoman D. B., Smith J. L., Brown E. R., Chase J., & Lee J. Y. K. (2013). Beyond performance: A motivational experiences model of stereotype threat. Educational Psychology Review, 25, 211–243.
43. Toulmin, S. E. (2003). The Uses of Argument (Updated Edition). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
44. Tuckman, B. W. (2007). The effect of motivational scaffolding on procrastinators_distance learning outcomes. Computers & Education, 49, 414–422.
45. Volet, S., Vauras, M., & Salonen, P. (2009). Self- and social regulation in learning contexts: An integrative perspective. Educational Psychologist, 44(4), 215–226.
46. Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1990). What influences learning? A content analysis of review literature. Journal of Educational Research, 84, 30–43.
47. White, B., & Frederiksen, J. (2005). A Theoretical Framework and Approach for Fostering Metacognitive Development. Educational Psychologist, 40(4), 211-223.
48. Wood, D., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). Role of tutoring in problem-solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 17(2), 89–100.
49. Yarrow, F., & Topping, K. (2001). Collaborative writing: The effects of metacognitive prompting and structured peer interaction. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(2), 261–282.
Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

Write the security code in the box >

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Promoting Metacognition in EFL Classrooms through Scaffolding Motivation. IJAL. 2016; 19 (1) :73-98
URL: http://ijal.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2623-en.html

Volume 19, Issue 1 (4-2016) Back to browse issues page
Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.15 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 3638